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Look, there’s a standard quantity, the fixation index, Fst, that measures the genetic difference between two populations. Fst = 0.0 means the two populations are identical, Fst = 1.0 means they have nothing in common. For example, the genetic distance between the HapMap sample of Europeans and their African sample is 0.153.

But the genetic distance between North American wolves and coyotes is also 0.153. Am I supposed to believe that wolves and coyotes are really just the same or that the species known as canis lupis is a social construct? It’s possible for two populations with that degree of genetic differences to be profoundly different— because wolves and coyotes are profoundly different. Two populations can be very different even if they generally share the same genetic variants, as long as those variants have different frequencies. This is especially so if there is a systematic shift— for example, if most of the variants that increase height (plus variants) are more common in one group, while the minus variants have higher frequencies in the other.

In dogs, there is more within-breed genetic variation than between-breed variation: about 70% is within-breed. For humans, about 85% is within-population.

According to Lewontin’s argument, which has been pulled apart by Diamond multistone amp; 18kt gold single earring Aur jE96Q7NnW
and numerous others, dog breeds must not really be very different. Great Danes can’t really be very different from teacup Chihuahuas. Pit bulls can’t really have different personalities than Labrador retrievers. What do you think?

According to Lewontin, groups we call races only differ in superficial characteristics like “nose, lip and eye shapes, skin color, hair form and quantity”— and height, and disease susceptibility, the immune system, skeleton, fast-twitch muscles, cranial capacity, bone density, alcohol metabolism, fat metabolism, and so on and so on and so on.

Genetic analysis can sort people into more closely related clusters, and when this is done the highest-order clusters look pretty much like old-fashioned racial classifications— Africans, western Eurasians, East Asians, Pacific islanders, and Amerindians. Zimmer says: “But any resemblance between genetic clusters of people and racial categories concocted before genetics existed can have no deep meaning.” The hell it can’t: 19 th Century scientists were observing the same reality. Nobody was sequencing avian genomes in Shakespeare’s day, yet he could still tell a hawk from a handsaw.

David Reich (who is NOT an English major) knows that the clusters that emerge from genetic analysis correspond fairly closely to old-fashioned racial classifications. He mentions Lewontin’s argument in Who We Are and How We Got Here — but as an example of obfuscation. “This carefully worded formulation is deliberately masking the possibility of substantial average differences in biological traits across populations,” he writes. On the other hand, having once been a physics major does not make you infallible: Reich and Zimmer both say a real race has to be very old. It doesn’t count if it was created by admixture of earlier populations several thousand years ago. So since they are the result of a mix of Anatolian-origin farmers and Indo-European pastoralists about five thousand years, Europeans cannot be a real ‘race’. So Mexicans, ‘la raza’, are imaginary, like elves and Eskimos. While German Shepherds, created in 1899, are just a bad dream— albeit a dream with teeth.

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Returning My Order

UPS will be closed Wednesday, July 4th. They will re-open Thursday, July 5th. You can still take your return packaging to a UPS drop box location on Wednesday, July 4th. If you would prefer to drop off to a UPS store and your rental end date falls on Wednesday, you are able to return your items by Thursday, July 5th. You will not be penalized for returning your items this way.

You can also return to our Rent the Runway store locations , which will have modified store hours through the holiday.

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Why on-time returns are important

We take pride in meeting and exceeding the expectations of all of our customers by providing an exceptional experience that begins with an on-time delivery. When a dress or accessory is not returned to us on time by a customer, or is lost or stolen, it impacts our ability to deliver on our promises to other customers and it harms our business . Because our products are unique and not replaceable, we cannot purchase additional products to fulfill orders due to late returns. We rely on our customers to return our products on time so that we can ensure other customers will have their dress for their event . Please review our Late Fee Policy below which explains how to return your rental products and outlines the late fees charged for late returns.

How do I return my order?

The date to send back your rental items is stated in your online invoice. In order to avoid a late fee:

*If you lose or fail to return the Rent the Runway blue carrying case, you will be charged $50 .

Late Fees

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​If you received your order in a blue carrying case:

1. Place the clothes in the bottom of the case’s main compartment (the hangers are yours to keep). Put accessories in their original packaging and place them in the accessory pockets. We handle the dry cleaning. 2. Tear the UPS return slip off this card and insert it face-up into the outside pocket. Missing your return slip? Email [email protected] and we can send you a new one to print off. 3. Tuck the handles inside the case. Fold it back to its original shape and zip closed. Thread the lock through the zippers. NOTE: The lock can only be used once, so don’t fasten it until you’re ready to ship your items. 4. Visit a UPS drop box and place the entire case inside. No box required.

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